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Chemical Resistance Information

The resistance of plasticized PVC, Nylon, low/medium density Polyethylene & Polyurethane to a wide range of chemicals is listed on the following pages below.

Satisfactory
Some attack or absorption: the material may be considered for use; however, testing may be required.
Unsatisfactory: Not useable because of: decomposition, solution, swelling, loss of ductility etc. of the samples tested.

In order to give guidance, the resistance of PVC to some chemicals has been predicted from its resistance to other chemicals, which have a similar composition. Such predictions are shown using an asterisk (*) with the symbols listed above. It may be safely assumed that chemical resistance decreases with both increasing temperature and with increasing concentration of reagent, and that the reverse is also true.

*No valid assumptions can be made, however, if the temperature and concentration move in compensating directions. The rating ‘some attack or absorption’ (symbol - ■) should not be assumed to apply at conditions different from those shown.

*Hydrolysis of Polyurethane:

Chemical resistance of polyurethane hoses and composite hoses sleeved with polyurethane. The polyurethane is not recommended for continuous use in contact with water above 40°c (or solutions containing water above 40°c) because of its hydrolyzing effect. Hydrolysis can also occur with long exposure to:

  • High humidity at elevated temperatures,
  • Acid and alkali solutions,
  • Aerated water,
  • Fungi and bacteria.

Some substances having a satisfactory rating may give swelling but this is usually minimal. The assumption should not be made that this indicates deterioration of the polyurethane.

*DISCLAIMER:

The information contained with in this chart (and otherwise supplied to users) is purely based on our general experience and is given in good faith, but without warranty or guarantee. Therefore we are unable to accept any responsibility in respect of factors which are outside of our knowledge and control.


Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low Density

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
acetaldehyde✖*
acetaldehyde40% aq. solution✖*
acetaldehyde100%✖*✖*
acetic acidDilute■*
acetic acid10% aq. solution■ ✖
acetic acid20%
acetic acid30%
acetic acid50%■ ✖
acetic acid60% aq. solution
acetic acidHigher concs.✖*
acetic acidConcentrated■ ✖
acetic acidGlacial (conc.)✖*
acetic anhydride✖*✖*■*✖*
acetone (dimethyl ketone)
acetone (dimethyl ketone)Traces
acetone (dimethyl ketone)100%
acetonitrile✖*
acetophenone
(methyl phenyl ketone)
✖*✖*
acetophenetidine✔*✔*
acetylene gas✔■
adipic acid
alcohol, allyl✖*✖*
alcohol, amyl
alcohol, benzyl✖*✖*
alcohol, butyl
alcohol, cetyl✔*✔*
alcohol, dodecyl (dodeconol)✔*✔*
alcohol, ethyl40% w/w water
alcohol, ethyl100%✔*
alcohol, furfuryl✖*
alcohol, hexyl✔*
alcohol, isopropyl
alcohol, lauryl✔*
alcohol, methyl6% aq. solution
alcohol, methyl100%
alcohol, nonyl (nonanol)✔*
alcohol, octyl (octanol)✔*
alcohol, propargyl
aliphatic hydrocarbons
allyl chloride✖*✖*
alum✔*✔*✔■*
aluminimum acetate✔*
aluminium chloride✔*✔*✔*✔■*
aluminium fluoride✔*
aluminium hydroxide✔*
aluminium nitrate✔*✔*
aluminium oxalate✔*✔*
aluminium oxychloride✔*
aluminium potassium sulphate
aluminium sulphate✔*✔*✔*✔*✔■*
ammonia0.88 s.g. aq. solution
ammoniaAnhydrous gas✔■*
ammoniaAnhydrous liquid✖*✖*
ammonia aqueous■*
ammonium bicarbonate✔*✔*
ammonium bifluoride✔*✔*
ammonium carbonate✔*✔*
ammonium chloride✔*✔*✔■*
ammonium fluoride✔*
ammonium hydrosulphide✔*
ammonium hydroxide
ammonium hydroxideDilute✔■*
ammonium metaphosphate✔*✔*
ammonium nitrate✔*✔*
ammonium oxalate✔*✔*
ammonium persulphate✔*✔*
ammonium phosphate✔*✔*
ammonium sulphate✔■*
ammonium sulphide
ammonium thiocyanate✔*✔*
amyl acetate (pentyl acetate)✖*✖*
amyl alcohol✔*✔■*
amyl chloride (pentyl chloride)✖*✖*
anethole
aniline (amino benzene)■*✖*
aniline hydrochloride✖*✖*
aniline sulphate✔*
animal oils✔*
anthraquinone
anthraquinone sulphonic acid
antimony chloride✔*✔*
antimony trichloride✔*✔*
aqua regiaDilute
aqua regiaConcentrated
arcton6 refrigerant 
arcton11 refrigerant ■*
arcton12 refrigerant ■*
arcton22 refrigerant ■*
arcton 113 refrigerant✖*
arcton 114 refrigerant
arsenic acidConcentrated
arysulphonic acid✖*
barium carbonate✔*✔*
barium chloride✔*✔*✔■*
barium hydroxide✔*✔*■*
barium hydroxideDilute✔■*
barium sulphate✔*✔*
Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
barium sulphide
beer✔*
benzaldehydeTraces✖*✖*✖*
benzaldehyde100%✖*✖*
benzene
benzoic acid✖*
benzoyl chloride✖*✖*
benzyl acetate✖*
benzyl alcohol
bismuth carbonate✔*✔*
bleach (see calcium hypochlorite)
borax (sodium tetraborate)✔*✔*✔*✔*
boric acid✔*✔*✔■
boron trifluoride
brine✔*✔*
bromineTraces, gas✖*✖*
bromine100% (dry gas)✖*✖*
bromineLiquid✖*✖*
butadiene
butane✔■
butanediol✖*✖*
butyl acetate✖*✖*
butyl alcohol (butanol)✔■✔*■*
butyl chloride✖*✖*
butyl phonel
butyraldehyde✖*✖*
butyric acid
butyric acid20% aq. solution✔*
butyric acidConcentrated✖*✖*
calcium arsenate
calcium bisulphite
calcium carbonate✔*✔*
calcium chlorate✔*✔*
calcium chlorideAq. solution✔■*
calcium chloride20% in methyl alcohol✖*
calcium hydroxide (lime solution)✔*✔*
calcium hydroxide (lime solution)Dilute✔■*
calcium hypochlorite
(chloride of lime, bleach)Dilute■*
(chloride of lime, bleach)(5%)
calcium nitrate✔*✔*
calcium phosphate✔*✔*
calcium sulphate✔*✔*
carbitol acetate
carbolic acid (phenol(s)
carbon dioxide✔*✔*✔*✔*✔*
carbon disulphide■*
carbon monoxide✔*✔*
carbon tetrachloride
carbonic acid✔*
casein✔*
castor oil✔*✔*
chloracetic acid✖*
chloral hydrate✖*✖*
chloric acid
chlorine10% (dry gas)
chlorine100% (dry gas)
chlorine10% (moist gas)
chlorine trifluoride✖*✖*
chlorine water2%
chlorine waterSat. solution✖*
chlorobenzene
chloroform✖*✖*
chlorosulphonic acid✖*✖*
chrome alum (chrominium✔*✔*
potassium sulphate)
chromic acid
chromic acidPlating solution
chromic acid10%
cider✔*
citric acid
citric acidDilute✔■
coal gas
copper chloride✔*✔*
copper cyanide
copper fluoride✔*✔*
copper nitrate✔*✔*
copper sulphate✔*✔*✔*
creosote✖*✖*
cresols (inc. cresylic acid)✖*✖*
crotonaldehyde✖*✖*
crude oil✔■*✔■*
crude oilPetroleum oil
cupric chloride
cupric fluoride✔*
cupric nitrate✔*✔*
cupric sulphate
cyanide✔■*
cyclohexane✖*✖*✖*
cyclohexanol✖*✖*
cyclohexanone✖*✖*
d.d.t. preparation
decalin
detergents, alkaline✔*✔*
detergent, syntheticAll concentrations✔*✔*
developers, photographic✔*✔*
dextrin (starch gum)✔*✔*✔*✔*✔*
dextrose✔*✔*✔*✔*✔*
di acetone alcohol
Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
di ammonium phosphate
diamyl ether✖*✖*
diazo salts
dibutyl phthalate✖*✖*■*
dichlorodifluoromethane
dichlorethylene✖*✖*
dichlorobenzene✖*✖*
di chloro ethane
di chloro methane
di ethanolamine20%
diesel oil✔■■*✖*
diethylene glycol✔*
diethyl ether (ether)■*
diethyl ketone✖*✖*
di isocyanate✔*
dimethylamine
dimethylcarbinol (isopropyl alcohol)
di methyl formamide*✖*
di methyl sulphoxide
di octyl phosphate
dioctyl phthalate✖*✖*■*
dioxane
disodium phosphate✔*
emulsifiersAll concentrations✔*✔*
emulsions, photographic✔*✔*
ethane
ethyl acetate✖*✖*
ethyl acrylate✖*✖*
ethyl alcohol (ethanol)✔■ 
ethyl alcohol (ethanol)40%
ethyl alcohol (ethanol)100%
ethyl butyrate✖*✖*
ethyl chloride✖*✖*
ethyl ether■*
ethyl formate✖*✖*
ethyl lactate✖*✖*
ethyl sulphate
ethylene bromide✖*✖*
ethylene chlorhydrin
ethylene chloride✖*✖*
ethylene dibromide✖*✖*
ethylene dichloride (dichloro ethane)✖*✖*
ethylene glycol (glycol)■*
ethylene oxide✖*✖*
fatty acids
ferric chloride✔*
ferric nitrate✔*✔*
ferric sulphate
ferrous ammonium citrate✔*✔*
ferrous chloride
ferrous sulphate✔*✔*
fixing solution, photographic✔*✔*
flavours & essences✔*✔*
fluorine✖*✖*
fluosilicic acid
formaldehyde40% w/w in water
formic acid3% aq. solution✖*✖*
formic acid10% aq. solution
formic acid25% aq. solution
formic acid50% aq. solution✖*
formic acid100%✖*✖*
french polish✔■*✔*■*✖*
freon 11 (refrigerant)■*
freon 12 (refrigerant)
freon 22 (refrigerant)
freon 113 (refrigerant)td>✖*
freon 114 (refrigerant)
fructose✔*✔*
fruit juice✔*
fruit pulp✔*
fuel oil✔■■*
furfural (furfuraldehyde)✖*✖*
furfuryl alcohol
gallic acid
gas, coal or town - see coal gas
gas, natural (mainly methane) see natural gas
gas oil■*✖*✔■*
gaz (liquified petroleum gas)
glacial acetic acid
glucose✔*✔*
glycerine✔*
glycerol✔*
glycerol monobenzyl ether✖*✖*
glycol - see ethylene glycol
glycolic acid
grape sugar✔*✔*✔*
greases, general■*✖*✔■*
greases, mineral■*✖*✔*
ground nut oil✔*✔*✔*✔*
heptane✔*
hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol)✔*✔*
hexane✔*
hydrazine✖*
hydrobromic acid50% aq. solution
hydrobromic acid100%✔*✔*
Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low Density

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
hydrochloric acidDilute■✖*
hydrochloric acid1% 
hydrochloric acid10% aq. solution
hydrochloric acid20%
hydrochloric acid22% aq. solution
hydrochloric acid37%
hydrochloric acidConcentrated✖*✖*
hydrocyanic acid
hydrofluoric acidDilute■*✖*
hydrofluoric acid4% aq. solution
hydrofluoric acid40% aq. solution 
hydrofluoric acid48,75% and anhydrous 
hydrofluoric acid60% aq. solution 
hydrofluoric acidConcentrated 
hydro fluosilicic acid20%
hydro fluosilicic acid31%✔*✔*
hydrogen✔*✔*✔*
hydrogen bromideAnhydrous✔*
hydrogen chlorideAnhydrous✔*
hydrogen fluorideAnhydrous✔*
hydrogen peroxide3% (10 vol.) 
hydrogen peroxide6% w/w (20 vols) 
hydrogen peroxide10%■* 
hydrogen peroxide12% (40 vol.) 
hydrogen peroxide30% (100 vol.) 
hydrogen peroxide90% and above 
hydrogen phosphide (phosphine)✔*✔*
hydrogen sulphide
hydroquinone
hydroxylamine sulphate
hypochlorous acid✖*
industrial methylated spirits (I.M.S.)✔■*✖*✖*
iodine, tincture of■✖*✖*
solution in potassium✖*✖*■✖*✖*
iodide✔*✖*✖* 
iso cyanates✖*✖*
isophorone ■*✖*
iso propyl alcohol
jet fuel✔*■*✖*■* 
kerosene (paraffin oil)✔■ 
kerosene (paraffin oil)Up to 40°C■✖
lactic acid (dodecanoic acid)■*
lactic acid (dodecanoic acid)10% aq. solution 
lactic acid (dodecanoic acid)100%✖*✖* 
lanoline✔*
lauric acid✔*
lauryl chloride
lead acetate✔*✔*✔■*
lead arsenate✔*✔*
lead nitrate✔*
lead tetraethyl (see tetraethyl lead)✔*
lime solution
(see calcium hydroxide)
linoleic acid
linseed cake 
linseed oil✔*✔*✔*
magnesium carbonate✔*✔*
magnesium chloride✔*✔*✔■*
magnesium chloride50% 
magnesium hydroxideDilute✔■*
magnesium hydroxide✔*✔*
magnesium nitrate✔*✔*
magnesium sulphate✔*✔*
maleic acid25% aq. solution
maleic acid50% aq. solution
maleic acidConcentrated✖*
manganese sulphate
melamine acid - catalyst lacquers✔*✔*
mercuric chloride✖*✖*
mercuric cyanide✔*✔*
mercurous nitrate✔*✔*
mercury✔*✔*✔*✔*
mesityl oxide✖*✖*
metallic soaps (water soluble)✔*
methane✔■*
methyl acetate
methyl alcohol (methanol)✖*
methyl alcohol (methanol)6%■*
methyl alcohol (methanol)100%
methyl bromide✖*✖*
methyl chloride (chloro methane)✖*✖*
methyl cyclohexanone✖*✖*
methyl ethyl ketone (M.E.K.)✖*✖*
methyl isobutyl ketone (M.I.B.K.)✖*✖*✖*✖*
methyl methacrylate✖*✖*
methyl sulphate✖*
methyl sulphonic acid
methyl sulphuric acid50% aq. solution
methyl sulphuric acid60% aq. solution
methyl sulphuric acid75% aq. solution
methyl sulphuric acid90% aq. solution
methylated spirit✔■*✖*✖*
methylene chloride (dichloro methane)✖*✖*
milk✔*
mineral oils
mixed acids (sulphuric /nitric)Various proportions✖*
molasses✔*
Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
monochlorbenzene
mustard✔*✔*
naphtha✔■✖*
naphthalen✖*✖*
natural gas (mainly methane)✔*✔■*
nickel chloride✔*✔*
nickel nitrate✔*✔*
nickel salts■*
nickel sulphate✔*✔*
nicotine
nicotinic acid
nitric acidDilute■✖*
nitric acid5% aq. solution
nitric acid10% aq. solution
nitric acid25% aq. solution
nitric acid50% aq. solution
nitric acid70% aq. solution✖*
nitric acid95% aq. solution✖*✖*
nitric acidAll concentrations
nitric acidConcentrated
nitrobenzene
nitrogen✔*✔*✔*
nitropropane
nitrous fumesMoist✖*
nitrous oxide gas
oil, ASTM Oil No. 1✔■*
oil, ASTM Oil No. 3✔■*
oil, ASTM Ref. Fuel A✔■*
oil, ASTM Ref. Fuel B✔■*
oil, ASTM Ref. Fuel C
oil, animal✔■*✔■*
oil, crude - see crude oil
oil, diesel - see diesel oil
oil, etheral
oil, fuel - see fuel oil
oil, gas - see gas oil
oil, hydraulic, petroleum base(Mineral)
oil, hydraulic, petroleum basesynthetic base
oil, hydraulic, petroleum base(Pydraul)
oil, hydraulic, petroleum baseSkydrol 500Skydrol
oil, mineral✔■*
(including common lubricating oils)
oil, paraffin - see kerosene
oil, transformer - see transformer oil
oil, of turpentine - see turpentine
oil, vegetable✔■*
oleic acid■*
oxalic acid
oxalic acid10%■*
oxygen✔*✔*✔*
ozone✔*
palmitic acid✔*
paraffin
penthane
perchloric acid✖*
perchloroethylene✖*✖*✖*✖*
petrol
petrol, aliphatic2 star
petrol, aliphatic3 star
petrol, aliphatic4 star
petrol, aliphatic5 star✔■
petrol, aliphaticHigh Octane✔■✔■
petrol, aromatic (containing benzene)✔*✔■*✔■*
petrol/benzene mixture80:20 ratio✖*✖*
petroleum ether■*
phenol (s) (carbolic acid)✖*
phenylcarbinol (benyl alcohol)✖*
phenylhydrazine✖*✖*
phenylhydrazine hydrochloride
phosgeneGas
phosgeneLiquid
phosphates✔*✔*
phosphoric acidDilute■*
phosphoric acid20% aq. solution
phosphoric acid25%
phosphoric acid30% aq. solution
phosphoric acid50% aq. solution
phosphoric acid90%
phosphoric acid95% aq. solution
phosphoric anhydride✔*
phosphorus
phosphorus pentoxide✔*
phosphorus trichloride✖*✖*
photographic developers✔*✔*
photographic emulsions✔*✔*
photographic fixing solutions✔*✔*
phthalic anhydride✔*✔*
picric acid (trinitro phenol)1% w/w in water✔*✔*
picric acid (trinitro phenol)10% w/w in alcohol✔*
polyester emulsions✔*
polystrene emulsions✔*
polyglycol ethers✖*✖*
potassium acid sulphate
Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
potassium antimonate
potassium bicarbonate✔*✔*
potassium bichromate✔*
potassium bisulphite✔*
potassium borate✔*✔*
potassium bromate✔*✔*
potassium bromide✔*✔*
potassium carbonate✔*✔*
potassium chlorate✔*✔*
potassium choride
potassium chromate✔*✔*
potassium cuprocyanide
potassium cyanide
potassium dichromate✔*
potassium ferricyanide✔*✔*
potassium ferrocyanide✔*✔*
potassium fluoride✔*✔*
potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)
potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)Dilute✔■*
potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)1% aq. solution
potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)10% aq. solution
potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)50%
potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)Concentrated
potassium hypochlorite
potassium nitrate (nitre, saltpetre)✔*✔*✔■*
potassium perborate✔*✔*
potassium perchlorite✔*
potassium permanganate✔*
potassium permanganateDilute■*
potassium permanganate5%
potassium persulphate✔*✔*
potassium phosphate✔*✔*
potassium sulphate✔*✔*✔■*
potassium sulphide
potassium thiosulphate
propane✔■*
propylene dichloride✖*✖*
(1,2 dichloro propane)
propylene glycol✔*
propylene oxide✖*✖*
pyridine
saccharose
salicylic acid✔*✔*
(ortho hydoxy benzoic acid)
saltpetre - see potassium nitrate
sea water✔*✔*
selenic acid
silver acetate✔*✔*
silver cyanide✔*✔*
silver nitrate
silver nitrateDilute■*
soap solution
soda water✔*✔*✔*
sodium acetate✔*
sodium acid sulphate
sodium aluminate✔*✔*
sodium antimonate
sodium benzoate✔*✖*
sodium bicarbonate✔*✔*
sodium bisulphate✔*✔*
(sodium hydrogen sulphate)
sodium bisulphite
sodium borate✔*
sodium bromide✔*✔*
sodium carbonate (washing soda)✔*
sodium carbonate (washing soda)Dilute■*
sodium chlorate✔*✔*✔■*
sodium chloride (common salt)✔*
sodium cyanide
sodium ferricyanide✔*✔*
sodium ferrocyanide✔*✔*
sodium fluoride✔*
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)Dilute✔■*
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)1% aq. solution
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)10% aq. solution
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)20%
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)40% aq. solution
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)46%
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)50%
sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)Concentrated✖*✖*
sodium hypochlorite5%
(a bleaching agent)15% Cl
(a bleaching agent)Dil.✔*
sodium hyposulphate✔*✔*
sodium metaphosphate✔*✔*
sodium nitrate✔*✔*✔*✔*✔■*
sodium nitrite✔*✔*
sodium perborate✔*
sodium peroxide✔*✔*
sodium phosphate✔*✔*
sodium silicate✔*✔*
sodium sulphate✔*✔*
sodium sulphide✔■*
sodium sulphide25% aq. solution
sodium sulphideConcentrated
sodium sulphite✔*■*✔■*
sodium tetraborate✔*
sodium thiosulphate
soft soap
Plasticised
PVC (PVC-P)

Nylon
Polyethylene
Low Density

Polyurethane
ChemicalConcentration20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc20ºc60ºc
solvent naptha✔■■*✖*✔■*
stannic chloride
stannous chloride
starch✔*✔*
steam - see water
stearic acid✔*✔*
stearin (also stearine)✔*✔*
styrene■*
sucrose (cane or beet sugar)✔*✔*✔*✔*✔*
sulphamic acid
sulphur✔*✔*■*
sulphurColloidal
sulphurMolten
sulphur dioxideGas & Liquid
sulphur dioxideDry✔*✔*
sulphur dioxideMoist✖*
sulphur dioxideLiquid✖*
sulphur dioxide10%
sulphur trioxide
sulphuric acidDilute✔■*
sulphuric acid1%
sulphuric acid10% aq. solution
sulphuric acid20% aq. solution
sulphuric acid30% aq. solution
sulphuric acid40% aq. solution
sulphuric acid45% aq. solution
sulphuric acid50% aq. solution
sulphuric acid55% aq. solution
sulphuric acid60% aq. solution
sulphuric acid70% aq. solution
sulphuric acid80% aq. solution
sulphuric acid90% aq. solution
sulphuric acid95% aq. solution
sulphuric acid98% aq. solution
sulphuric acidFuming
sulphuric acidConcentrated✖*✖*
sulphurous acid10% aq. solution
sulphurous acid30% aq. solution
surface active agents (emulsifiers)All concentrations✔*✔*
(synthetic detergents & wetting agents)
synthetic detergentsAll concentrations✔*
tallow✔*
tannic acid
tanning extracts✔*
tartaric acid
tartaric acidDilute■*
tartaric acid10%
tetra ethyl lead✔*
tetrahydrofuran✖*✖*
tetrahydronaphthalene
tetralin
thionyl chloride
toluene✖*✖*
town gas - see coal gas
transformer oil✔*■*■✖*
tributyl phosphate✖*✖*■*✖*■*
trichloracetic acid✖*
trichloroethane✖*✖*✖*✖*
trichloroethylene
trichlorobenzene✖*✖*
tricresyl phosphate✖*✖*■✖*✖*
triethanolamine
triethylene glycol✔*
trimethylamine
trimethylpropane
trisodium phosphate■*■✖*
turpentine✔■■*
turps substitute - see white spirit
urea✔*
urea, formaldehde soln.✔*
urea, soln.✔■*
uric acid
uric acidDilute
vegetable oils
vinegar✔*✔■
vinyl acetate✖*✖*
water - de ionized
water - de ionized100°C
water - de ionized70°C
water - de ionized40°C (up to)
steam110°C
steam100°C
water, sea - see sea water
water, soda - see soda water
wetting agentsAll concentrations✔*✔*
white spirit✔■■*✖*
wines and spirits
xylene (dimethyl benzene)✖*✖*✖*
xylenol (dimethyl phenol)✖*✖*
yeast✔*
zinc ammonium carbonate✔*✔*
zinc carbonate✔*✔*
zinc chloride✔*✔*✔*✔■*
zinc oxide✔*✔*
zinc sulphide
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